Risk Disclosures


Day-Trading Risk Disclosure

You should consider the following points before engaging in a day-trading strategy. For purposes of this notice, a “day-trading strategy” means an overall trading strategy characterized by the regular transmission by a customer of intra-day orders to effect both purchase and sale transactions in the same security or securities.

Day trading can be extremely risky. Day trading generally is not appropriate for someone of limited resources and limited investment or trading experience and low risk tolerance. You should be prepared to lose all of the funds that you use for day trading. In particular, you should not fund day-trading activities with retirement savings, student loans, second mortgages, emergency funds, funds set aside for purposes such as education or home ownership, or funds required to meet your living expenses. Further, certain evidence indicates that an investment of less than $50,000 will significantly impair the ability of a day trader to make a profit. Of course, an investment of $50,000 or more will in no way guarantee success.

Be cautious of claims of large profits from day trading. You should be wary of advertisements or other statements that emphasize the potential for large profits in day trading. Day trading can also lead to large and immediate financial losses.

Day trading requires knowledge of securities markets. Day trading requires in-depth knowledge of the securities markets and trading techniques and strategies. In attempting to profit through day trading, you must compete with professional, licensed traders employed by securities firms. You should have appropriate experience before engaging in day trading.

Day trading requires knowledge of a firm’s operations. You should be familiar with a securities firm’s business practices, including the operation of the firm’s order execution systems and procedures. Under certain market conditions, you may find it difficult or impossible to liquidate a position quickly at a reasonable price. This can occur, for example, when the market for a stock suddenly drops, or if trading is halted due to recent news events or unusual trading activity. The more volatile a stock is, the greater the likelihood that problems may be encountered in executing a transaction. In addition to normal market risks, you may experience losses due to system failures.

Day trading will generate substantial commissions, even if the per trade cost is low. Day trading involves aggressive trading, and generally you will pay commissions on each trade. The total daily commissions that you pay on your trades will add to your losses or significantly reduce your earnings. For instance, assuming that a trade costs $16 and an average of 29 transactions are conducted per day, an investor would need to generate an annual profit of $111,360 just to cover commission expenses.

Day trading on margin or short selling may result in losses beyond your initial investment. When you day trade with funds borrowed from a firm or someone else, you can lose more than the funds you originally placed at risk. A decline in the value of the securities that are purchased may require you to provide additional funds to the firm to avoid the forced sale of those securities or other securities in your account. Short selling as part of your day-trading strategy also may lead to extraordinary losses, because you may have to purchase a stock at a very high price in order to cover a short position.

Potential Registration Requirements. Persons providing investment advice for others or managing securities accounts for others may need to register as either an “Investment Adviser[Advisor]” under the Investment Advisers[Advisors] Act of 1940 or as a “Broker” or “Dealer” under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Such activities may also trigger state registration requirements.

Description and Certain Risks of Forex Trading

The Foreign Exchange market, also referred to as the “Forex” or “FX” market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average turnover of well over US $1 trillion — 30 times larger than the combined volume of all U.S. equity markets.

“Foreign Exchange” is the simultaneous buying of one currency and selling of another. Currencies are traded in pairs, for example Euro/US Dollar (EUR/USD) or US Dollar/Japanese Yen (USD/JPY).

There are two reasons to buy and sell currencies. About 5% of daily turnover is from companies and governments that buy or sell products and services in a foreign country or must convert profits made in foreign currencies into their domestic currency. The other 95% is trading for profit, or speculation.

For speculators, the best trading opportunities are usually with the most commonly traded (and therefore most liquid) currencies, called “the Majors.” Today, more than 85% of all daily transactions involve trading of the Majors, which include the US Dollar, Japanese Yen, Euro, British Pound, Swiss Franc, Canadian Dollar and Australian Dollar.

A true 24-hour market, Forex trading begins each day in Sydney, and moves around the globe as the business day begins in each financial center, first to Tokyo, then London, and then New York. Unlike any other financial market, traders can respond to currency fluctuations caused by economic, social and political events at the time they occur – day or night.

The FX market is considered an Over The Counter (OTC) or ‘interbank’ market, as transactions are conducted between two counterparts over the telephone or via an electronic network. Trading is not centralized on an exchange, as it is with the stock and futures markets.

As with all financial products, FX quotes include a ‘bid’ and ‘offer’. The ‘bid’ is the price at which a dealer is willing to buy (and clients can sell) the base currency for the counter currency. The ‘ask’ is the price at which a dealer will sell (and clients can buy) the base currency for the counter currency.

The US dollar is the centerpiece of the Forex market and is normally considered the ‘base’ currency for quotes. In the “Majors,” this includes USD/JPY, USD/CHF and USD/CAD. For these currencies and many others, quotes are expressed as a unit of $1 USD per the other currency quoted in the pair. The exceptions to USD-based quoting include the Euro, British pound (also called Sterling), and Australian dollar. These currencies are quoted as dollars per foreign currency as opposed to foreign currencies per dollar.

Currency prices are affected by a variety of economic and political conditions, most significantly interest rates, inflation and political stability. Moreover, governments sometimes participate in the Forex market to influence the value of their currencies, either by flooding the market with their domestic currency in an attempt to lower the price, or conversely buying in order to raise the price. This is known as Central Bank intervention. Any of these factors, as well as large market orders, can cause volatility in currency prices. However, the size and volume of the Forex market makes it impossible for any one entity to “drive” the market for any length of time.

Currency traders make decisions using both technical factors and economic fundamentals. Technical traders use charts, trend lines, support and resistance levels, and numerous patterns and mathematical analyses to identify trading opportunities. Fundamentalists predict price movements by interpreting a wide variety of economic information, including news, government-issued indicators and reports, and even rumor.

Trading foreign currencies is a challenging and potentially profitable opportunity for educated and experienced traders. However, before deciding to participate in the Forex market, you should carefully consider your investment objectives, level of experience and risk appetite. Most important, do not invest money you cannot afford to lose.

There is considerable exposure to risk in any foreign exchange transaction. Any transaction involving currencies involves risks including, but not limited to, the potential for changing political and/or economic conditions that may substantially affect the price or liquidity of a currency.

Moreover, the leveraged nature of FX trading means that any market movement will have an equally proportional effect on your deposited funds. This may work against you as well as for you. The possibility exists that you could sustain a total loss of initial margin funds and be required to deposit additional funds to maintain your position. If you fail to meet any margin call within the time prescribed, your position will be liquidated and you will be responsible for any resulting losses. Investors may lower their exposure to risk by employing risk-reducing strategies such as ‘stop-loss’ or ‘limit’ orders.

There are also risks associated with utilizing an Internet-based deal execution software application including, but not limited to, the failure of hardware and software.

Extended Hours and Opening Market Trading Risk Disclosure

Risk of Lower Liquidity

Liquidity refers to the ability of market participants to buy and sell securities. Generally, the more orders that are available in a market, the greater the liquidity. Liquidity is important because with greater liquidity it is easier for investors to buy or sell securities and, as a result, investors are more likely to pay or receive a competitive price for securities purchased or sold. There may be lower liquidity in extended hours trading as compared to regular market hours. As a result, your order may only be partially executed, if at all.

Risk of Higher Volatility

Volatility refers to the changes in price that securities undergo when trading. Generally, the higher the volatility of a security, the greater its price swings. There may be greater volatility in extended hours trading than in regular market hours. As a result, your order may only be partially executed, or not executed at all, or you may receive an inferior price in extended hours trading than you would during regular market hours.

Risk of Changing Prices

The prices of securities traded in extended hours trading may not reflect the prices either at the end of regular market hours, or upon the opening the next morning. As a result, you may receive a price in extended hours trading that is inferior to the one you would receive during regular market hours.

Risk of Unlinked Markets

Depending on the extended hours trading system or the time of day, the prices displayed on a particular extended hours trading system may not reflect the prices in other concurrently operating extended hours trading systems dealing in the same securities. Accordingly, you may receive a price in one extended hours trading system that is inferior to the one you would in another extended hours trading system.

Risk of News Announcements

Normally, issuers make news announcements that may affect the price of their securities after regular market hours. Similarly, important financial information is frequently announced outside of regular market hours. In extended hours trading, these announcements may occur during trading, and if combined with lower liquidity or higher volatility, may cause an exaggerated and unsustainable effect on the price of a security.

Risk of Wider Spreads

The spread refers to the difference in price between what you can buy a security for and what you can sell it for. Lower liquidity and higher volatility in extended hours trading may result in wider than normal spreads for a particular security.

Risk of Trading During Opening

Halts and Closing Markets. The above risk factors may also apply when trading during opening (delayed or otherwise), halts, and closing markets (premature or otherwise). This is due to the mechanics of a marketplace with fragmented liquidity across multiple entities that might not open, halt or close at exactly the same time, thus causing momentary unusual or adverse liquidity and price discovery conditions.

Forex Risk Disclosure Statement




(1) TRADING IS NOT ON A REGULATED MARKET OR EXCHANGE—YOUR DEALER IS YOUR TRADING PARTNER WHICH IS A DIRECT CONFLICT OF INTEREST. BEFORE YOU ENGAGE IN ANY RETAIL FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRADING, YOU SHOULD CONFIRM THE REGISTRATION STATUS OF YOUR COUNTERPARTY. The off-exchange foreign currency trading you are entering into is not conducted on an interbank market, nor is it conducted on a futures exchange subject to regulation as a designated contract market by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.  The foreign currency trades you transact are trades with the futures commission merchant or retail foreign exchange dealer as your counterparty.  WHEN YOU SELL, THE DEALER IS THE BUYER.  WHEN YOU BUY, THE DEALER IS THE SELLER.  As a result, when you lose money trading, your dealer is making money on such trades, in addition to any fees, commission, or spreads the dealer may charge.


Any trading platform that you may use to enter off-exchange foreign currency transactions is only connected to your futures commission merchant or retail foreign exchange dealer. You are accessing that trading platform only to transact with your dealer.  You are not trading with any other entities or customers of the dealer by accessing such platform. The availability and operation of any such platform, including the consequences of the unavailability of the trading platform for any reason, is governed only by the terms of your account agreement with the dealer.

(3) YOUR DEPOSITS WITH THE DEALER HAVE NO REGULATORY PROTECTIONS. All of your rights associated with your retail forex trading, including the manner and denomination of any payments made to you, are governed by the contract terms established in your account agreement with the futures commission merchant or retail foreign exchange dealer. Funds deposited by you with a futures commission or retail foreign exchange dealer for trading off-exchange foreign currency transactions are not subject to the customer funds protections provided to customers trading on a contract market that is designated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Your dealer may commingle your funds with its own operating funds or use them for other purposes. In the event your dealer becomes bankrupt, any funds the dealer is holding for you in addition to any amounts owed to you resulting from trading, whether or not any assets are maintained in separate deposit accounts by the dealer, may be treated as an unsecured creditor’s claim.

(4) YOU ARE LIMITED TO YOUR DEALER TO OFFSET OR LIQUIDATE ANY TRADING POSITIONS SINCE THE TRANSACTIONS ARE NOT MADE ON AN EXCHANGE OR MARKET AND, AND YOUR DEALER MAY SET ITS OWN PRICES. Your ability to close your transactions or offset positions is limited to what your dealer will offer to you, as there is no other market for these transactions. Your dealer may offer any prices it wishes, and it may offer prices derived from outside sources or not in its discretion. Your dealer may establish its prices by offering spreads from third party prices, but it is under no obligation to do so or to continue to do so. Your dealer may offer different prices to different customers at any point in time on its own terms. The terms of your account agreement alone govern the obligations your dealer has to you to offer prices and offer offset or liquidating transactions in your account and make any payments to you. The prices offered by your dealer may or may not reflect prices available elsewhere at any exchange, interbank, or other market for foreign currency.


The futures commission merchant or retail foreign exchange dealer may compensate introducing brokers for introducing your account in ways which are not disclosed to you. Such paid solicitors are not required to have, and may not have, any special expertise in trading, and may have conflicts of interest based on the method by which they are compensated.  Solicitors working on behalf of futures commission merchants and retail foreign exchange dealers are required to register.  You should confirm that they are, in fact registered. You should thoroughly investigate the manner in which all such solicitors are compensated and be very cautious in granting any person or entity authority to trade on your behalf. You should always consider obtaining dated written confirmation of any information you are relying on from your dealer or a solicitor in making any trading or account decisions.



17 CFR § 5.5(e) Non-Discretionary Retail Forex Customer Account Disclosure

Q4 2012 Q1 2013 Q2 2013 Q3 2013
% Profitable 33.03% 32.96% 30.90% 32.04%
% Unprofitable 66.97% 67.04% 69.10% 67.96%
Total Accounts 9,828 9,792 9,427 8,718



I hereby acknowledge that I have received and understood this risk disclosure statement.

TradeStation Forex, Inc. began operations during first quarter 2011. Data first became available during second quarter 2011.

Risk Disclosure Statement for Futures and Futures Options

This brief statement does not disclose all of the risks and other significant aspects of trading in futures and futures options. In light of the risks, you should undertake such transactions only if you understand the nature of the contracts (and contractual relationships) into which you are entering and the extent of your exposure to risk. Trading in futures and options is not suitable for many members of the public. You should carefully consider whether trading is appropriate for you in light of your experience, objectives, financial resources and other relevant circumstances.

Futures and futures options trading is speculative, high-risk and aimed at achieving short-term trading profits.


Effect of “Leverage” or “Gearing”
Transactions in futures carry a high degree of risk. The amount of initial margin is small relative to the value of the futures contract, meaning that transactions are heavily “leveraged” or “geared.” A relatively small market movement will have a proportionately larger impact on the funds you have deposited or will have to deposit: this may work against you as well as for you. You may sustain a total loss of initial margin funds and any additional funds deposited with the firm to maintain your position. If the market moves against your position or margin levels are increased, you may be called upon to pay substantial additional funds on short notice to maintain your position. If you fail to comply with a request for additional funds within the time prescribed, your position may be liquidated at a loss and you will be liable for any resulting deficit.

Risk-reducing orders or strategies
The placing of certain orders (e.g., “stop-loss” orders, where permitted, or “stop-limit” orders) which are intended to limit losses to certain amounts may not be effective because market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders. Strategies using combinations of positions, such as “spread” and “straddle” positions, may be as risky as taking simple “long” or “short” positions.


Variable degree of risk
Transactions in options carry a high degree of risk. Purchasers and sellers of options should familiarize themselves with the type of option (i.e., put or call) which they contemplate trading and the associated risks. You should calculate the extent to which the value of the options must increase for your position to become profitable, taking into account the premium and all transaction costs.

The purchaser of options may offset or exercise the options or allow the options to expire. The exercise of an option results either in a cash settlement or in the purchaser acquiring or delivering the underlying interest. If the option is on a future, the purchaser will acquire a futures position with associated liabilities for margin (see the section on Futures above). If the purchased options expire worthless, you will suffer a total loss of your investment. If you are contemplating purchasing deep out-of-the-money options, you should be aware that the chance of such options becoming profitable ordinarily is remote.

Selling (“writing” or “granting”) an option generally entails considerably greater risk than purchasing options. Although the premium received by the seller is fixed, the seller may sustain a loss well in excess of that amount. The seller will be liable for additional margin to maintain the position if the market moves unfavorably. The seller will also be exposed to the risk of the purchaser exercising the option and the seller being obligated to either settle the option in cash or to acquire or deliver the underlying interest. If the option is on a future, the seller will acquire a position in a future with associated liabilities for margin (see the section on Futures above). If the option is “covered” by the seller holding a corresponding position in the underlying interest or a future or another option, the risk may be reduced. If the option is not covered, the risk of loss can be unlimited.

Certain exchanges in some jurisdictions permit deferred payment of the option premium, exposing the purchaser to liability for margin payments not exceeding the amount of the premium. The purchaser is still subject to the risk of losing the premium and transaction costs. When the option is exercised or expires, the purchaser is responsible for any unpaid premium outstanding at that time.

Additional risks common to futures and options

Terms and conditions of contracts
You should ask the firm with which you deal about the terms and conditions of the specific futures or options which you are trading and associated obligations (e.g., the circumstances under which you may become obligated to make or take delivery of the underlying interest of a futures contract and, in respect of options, expiration dates and restrictions on the time for exercise). Under certain circumstances the specifications of outstanding contracts (including the exercise price of an option) may be modified by the exchange or clearing house to reflect changes in the underlying interest.

Suspension or restriction of trading and pricing relationships
Market conditions (e.g., illiquidity) and/or the operation of the rules of certain markets (e.g., the suspension of trading in any contract or contract month because of price limits or “circuit breakers”) may increase the risk of loss by making it difficult or impossible to effect transactions or liquidate/offset positions. If you have sold options, this may increase the risk of loss.

Further, normal pricing relationships between the underlying interest and the future, and the underlying interest and the option may not exist. This can occur when, for example, the futures contract underlying the option is subject to price limits while the option is not. The absence of an underlying reference price may make it difficult to judge “fair” value.

Deposited cash and property
You should familiarize yourself with the protections accorded money or other property you deposit for domestic and foreign transactions, particularly in the event of a firm insolvency or bankruptcy. The extent to which you may recover your money or property may be governed by specific legislation or local rules. In some jurisdictions, property which had been specifically identifiable as yours will be pro-rated in the same manner as cash for purposes of distribution in the event of a shortfall.

Commissions and other charges
Before you begin to trade, you should obtain a clear explanation of all commissions, fees and other charges which you will or may incur for which you will or may be liable. These commissions, fees and charges will affect your net profit (if any) or increase your loss.

Transactions in other jurisdictions
Transactions on markets in other jurisdictions, including markets formally linked to a domestic market, may expose you to additional risk. Such markets may be subject to regulation which may offer different or diminished investor protection. Before you trade you should inquire about any rules relevant to your particular transactions. Your local regulatory authority will be unable to compel the enforcement of the rules of regulatory authorities or markets in other jurisdictions where your transactions have been effected. You should ask the firm with which you deal for details about the types of redress available in both your home jurisdiction and other relevant jurisdictions before you start to trade.

Currency risks
The profit or loss in transactions in foreign currency denominated contracts (whether they are traded in your own or another jurisdiction) will be affected by fluctuations in currency rates where there is a need to convert from the currency denomination of the contract to another currency.

Trading facilities
Most open-outcry and electronic trading facilities are supported by computer-based component systems for the order routing, execution, matching, registration or clearing of trades. As with all facilities and systems, they are vulnerable to temporary disruption or failure. Your ability to recover certain losses may be subject to limits on liability imposed by the system provider, the market, the clearing house and/or member firms. Such limits may vary: you should ask the firm with which you deal for details in this respect.

Electronic trading
Trading on an electronic trading system may differ not only from trading in an open-outcry market but also from trading on other electronic trading systems. If you undertake transactions on an electronic trading system, you will be exposed to risks associated with the system including the failure of hardware and software. The result of any system failure may be that your order is either not executed according to your instructions or is not executed at all.

Off-exchange transactions
In some jurisdictions, and only then in restricted circumstances, firms are permitted to effect off-exchange transactions. The firm with which you deal may be acting as your counterparty to the transaction. In these situations, it may be difficult or impossible to liquidate an existing position, to assess the value, to determine a firm price or to assess the exposure to risk. For these reasons, these transactions may involve increased risks. Off-exchange transactions may be less regulated or subject to a separate regulatory regime. Before you undertake such transactions, you should familiarize yourself with applicable rules and attendant risks.

Notice to Online Traders

In 1999, the then-Chairman of the SEC, Arthur Levitt, released a public statement about trading and investing via the Internet. Mr. Levitt acknowledged the positive aspects of how the Internet and new technologies have enabled lower transaction costs and faster access to the financial markets. As a reminder, customers should not allow the ease and speed with which they can trade, lull them into a false sense of security or encourage them to trade too quickly or too often. Trading or investing in the stock market – however one does it and however easy it may be to execute those trades – will always contain risk.

Mr. Levitt summed it up with three golden rules: (1) know what you are buying; (2) know the ground rules under which you decide to buy or sell a stock or other security; and (3) know the level of risk you are undertaking. Our customers and prospective customers should remember that it is just as easy to lose money through the click of a mouse as it is to make it. Most people that jump into trading without a plan lose money. For most individuals, the stock market should be a place to invest, not actively trade. The technology available at Advanced Trading Solutions is in many respects similar to that which is used by professional traders. Retail investors should exercise caution before attempting to imitate the style of trading and assuming the risks undertaken by market professionals.

“Doing your homework” and have a well-thought-out plan before you begin. Some of the elements of a sound plan may include: (1) creating a systematic approach to trading; (2) placing limits on the amount of money you are willing to put at risk; (3) using the latest technology to reduce emotion in your trading decisions; and (4) taking advantage of the most efficient forms of execution.

Regardless of the system used, every Internet trader or investor should be aware of the effects of systems downtime, the enormous price volatility of many stocks, the possible negative results of using margin accounts (Margin Disclosure Statement), and the risks associated with active trading. Risks of Active Trading.

System downtime can affect anyone conducting business over the Internet; among other things, trades might not be executed at all or trade executions could be at prices significantly different from the price quoted at the time the order was entered. There is a variety of reasons why a user could experience delays or failures in order placements, order cancellations, trade executions or trade reports. Among them are: increase in volume and demand beyond system capacity; errors or defects in the software or the data services; Internet service providers having technical problems; communications lines problems or failures; satellite dish problems or failures; extended power outages; and sabotage created by hackers. The point we are making is that no system is perfect. Delays and failures are risks that you must assume. In using our systems, you accept that solely you are taking those risks, and that we cannot be held responsible by you if they occur, regardless of the reason. To put it plainly, you should not always expect high-speed order placements, cancellations, executions and reporting. We recommend that you have a back-up plan to place, cancel, execute and confirm orders if you encounter problems using Internet software and systems.

You should also be aware of the risks associated with trading in a rapidly-moving and sometimes volatile market and make sure that you think about how to limit your risk. For example, volatility can significantly affect your execution price if you are placing market orders. In other words, just because you see a price on your computer screen doesn’t mean that you will get that price. To avoid buying or selling a stock at a price higher or lower than is acceptable to you, you might consider using limit orders rather than market orders. A limit order is an order to buy or sell a security at no higher or lower than a specified price. However, using a limit order often results in the trade executions failing to occur. As you can see, trading, and particularly active online trading, is complex. You must understand what you are doing and the risks you are taking before you decide to trade.

You should also fully understand the risks associated with using a margin account. Margin Disclosure Statement. When you buy stock on margin, you are borrowing money and pledging the securities in your account as collateral. In volatile markets, investors who have put up an initial margin payment (i.e., borrowed funds) for a stock may find themselves being required to provide additional cash (maintenance margin) if the price of the stock subsequently falls (a margin call). A brokerage firm has the right without notice to force the sale of securities (i.e., the collateral) chosen by the brokerage firm from the investor’s account and charge any loss to the customer, possibly causing a loss greater than the initial investment. The brokerage firm can increase margin requirements at any time and is not required to grant an extension on any margin call. It is important for our customers to understand these concepts before they decide to trade on margin.

Advanced Trading Solutions was founded to provide the most state of the art software to help support the active trader.Along with our high-powered technology comes your responsibility to “do your homework” and have a plan before you begin trading on your own.